Reuse Allocations: Return of the Pseudo-code

More problems

On Friday, I described some new algorithms for handling allocation reuse in Futhark that could handle memory block allocations split from the actual use of the memory block use as well as multiple uses of a single memory block. Over the weekend, I realized that the algorithm wouldn't handle loop expressions of if expressions correctly.

For loop expressions the memory blocks that are live at the beginning of the loop body must not be reused during the execution of the loop body, since the loop body might be executed multiple times.

For if expressions, we need a way to merge the uses in one branch with the uses in another branch.


My first idea for solving the problem with loops was to include some extra information in the InUse list:

1: InUse: [{ vname: VName, protected: Bool, free: Bool }]

However, Troels pointed out that perhaps it would be easier to keep track of all the new blocks used within the body of the loop, and then insert an artificial statement associating those blocks with the blocks that were live at the beginning of the loop body. That lead me to consider whether we could simplify the UseMap considerably. In the definition from Friday, a UseMap maps memory blocks to statements in which they are in use. But really, what we're interested in, is whether the in-use scope of one memory block overlaps with the in-use scope of another memory block. Instead of having a map from memory blocks to all their in-use statements, we can instead use an undirected graph, where an edge between two memory blocks (vertices) means that their in-use scopes overlap. In order to handle loops, we collect a list of the memory blocks that were used throughout the loop body, and at the end we just insert edges between those memory blocks and the memory blocks that were in use before the loop.


To handle if-expressions using the new technique proposed above, we just need to merge the graphs from the two branches of the if. That is, the edges \(E\) in the resulting graph \(G\) will be \(E = E_1 \cup E_2\), where \(E_1\) are the edges in the then-branch and \(E_2\) are the edges in the else-branch.

However, we have an opportunity for some extra optimisations with ifs. Consider the following piece of code:

 1: let xs_mem = alloc ...
 2: let ys_mem = alloc ...
 4: let xs@xs_mem = ...
 6: let zs@zs_mem =
 7:   if ... then
 8:     xs                          -- last use of xs_mem
 9:   else
10:     let ys@ys_mem = ...
11:     in ys
13: in ...

Here, xs_mem is last used in the then-branch of the if-expression, and not used at all in the then-branch, which means that ys_mem and xs_mem could actually be merged. However, xs_mem is in use at the beginning of the loop body, so our algorithm will report that its in-use scope overlaps with ys_mem, even if we can clearly see that it doesn't.

I'm not quite sure how to fix this, because in the other branch we clearly need xs_mem to be in use. I'll have to think some more about this.

In the mean-time, here's some pseudocode for the updated algorithm.


1: type Allocs = Map VName SubExp
3: type LastUseMap = Map VName (Set VName)
5: type InUse = Set VName
7: type MemGraph = Graph VName
9: type WasUsed = Set VName

Here, MemGraph is an undirected graph with unit edges. We're just interested in whether two memory blocks are connected or not. If two memory blocks are connected, their lifetimes overlap. WasUsed is a set of memory blocks that were used inside a body. Otherwise, everything is the same as in the last algorithm.

analyseStm :: LastUseMap -> InUse -> WasUsed -> MemGraph -> Stm -> (WasUsed, InUse, MemGraph, Stm)
analyseStm lu_map inuse wasused graph (let p = exp) =
  if exp is a loop with body b then
    let (wasused', inuse', graph', b') = analyseBody lu_map inuse wasused graph b
    let graph'' = graph' with edges between blocks in inuse and blocks in wasused'
    return (wasused', inuse', graph', let p = exp with b')
  else if exp is a if with bodies b1, b2 then
    let (wasused1, inuse1, graph1, b1') = analyseBody lu_map inuse wasused graph b1
    let (wasused2, inuse2, graph2, b2') = analyseBody lu_map inuse wasused graph b1
    let inuse' = inuse1inuse2
    return (wasused1wasused2, inuse', graph1graph2, let p = exp with b1' and b2')
  else if exp contains a body of stms (ie. introduces a scope) b then
    let (wasused', inuse', graph', b') = analyseBody lu_map inuse wasused graph b
    return (wasused', inuse', graph', let p = exp with b')
    let mems = memory blocks referenced in p
    let inuse' = inusemems
    let lus = lookup p in lu_map
    let lus_mems = memory blocks referenced in lus
    let graph' = graph with edges between all blocks in memsinuselus_mems
    let inuse'' = inuse'lus_mems
    let wasused' = wasusedmemslus_mems
    return (wasused

Hm, that looks alright, but the if-handling is not correct. If a block was last used in one of the two branches, it means that it is also out of scope after the if-expression. We need to do some set-operations to get it right. Right now, we've got inuse' = inuse1inuse2, but really, we need something like this:

inuse' = (inuse1 ∪ inuse2) ∖ ((inuse ∖ inuse1) ∪ (inuse ∖ inuse2))

That is, any block from inuse that is not part of inuse1 or inuse2 needs to be subtracted from the final set of blocks.

Can we do something similar to allow overlap of memory blocks in different branches?

Well, after hurting my head for a while, I haven't found out how to do that. Perhaps someone else has a good idea at the meeting tomorrow.